Awo Ifa Omi Otura-ka. Prist of Ifa; Medical Doctor,
Speciality of Psychiatry; Official Researcher in Transcultural
Academy of Sciences, Cuba. Main Researcher of AfroCuban
Cultural Center, Matanzas, Cuba/Los Angeles, California.
carried out a brief historical review of the causes
that impacted in the Cuban Biological-psychological
and Social Sincretysm in last century.
most important aspects in Don Fernando Ortiz's work
are exposed, in particular those related with their
concrete contributions to the study of hypothetical
action mechanisms in some psychiatric squares.
is pointed out the contribution of the word and transculturación
definition and their influence in the conformation
of the Psiquiatría Transcultural in the world.
thinks about the presence of the Dr. Ortiz in the
emergence and development of the studies transculturales
in our means through Professor's José A. Bustamante
figure and their Latin American and world projection.
influence is pointed out that in the author's vital
and scientific development and of many other Cuban
psychiatrists have its work.
Hardly 19 years after arriving to Cuba the first Spaniards
in 1492, begins in 1511 the entrance of black brought
to work as slaves, in a principle in mines and domestic
tasks; but what determines the increment of the massive
entrance of black slaves was it exactly the development
of the sugar industry, to the one which historically
stays united the slavery, as much in their beginnings
as in the later participation in their abolition.
it is certain that slaves' abundant figures entered
in the XVI, XVII and XVIII centuries, the bigest grow
period of the black population of the Island in fact
takes place in the XIX century.
book Slavery, Abolition and author's Julio Ángel Carreras
Racism, he tells us: "The XIX century it is conditioned
by the African presence in the Island", pointing,
Of África arrived in those years stout, intelligent
and capable men's thousands for the hardest tasks."
For later to alert: "This biological and cultural
contribution has not taken into account for many writers",
this alert is part of the incentive of the introduction
of this work of aiming the causes of the sincrethysm,
not only cultural, but also biological and social
of the Cuban town and the why, in our opinion, he/she
in fact consolidates in the XIX century.
of the black population of the Island, didn't belong
only to slaves, because they also existed, black libertos
or liberate that reached from 36% in 1817 until 37%
in 1860; evenly they were increased in the Island
the native targets of Cuba that were devoted to the
fundamentally agricultural tasks, with what is not
difficult to suppose that for psychological and economic
similarities they mixed profusely. Don Fernando Ortiz
tells us in his work The Black Sorcerers": "The welding
was complete, not only psychological, but also physiologic,
because so that this he/she was carried out they were
the same concausas, equally extensive the intimate
and permanent contact at the same time." Aiming the
frequent thing in that time of durable unions between
white and black.
It is also
in this century that the fight begins with the abolition
in wich participate equally white, wealthy some of
them and black, black free and black slaves' proprietors,
what culminates in the fights for the independence
of Cuba in wich combatted together; to deepen more
in these aspects of the fight would move us away from
the objective of our work.
On the other
hand, to the dominant Creole bourgeoisie it interested
him to impose their religious ideology, the Catholicism,
as classist expression to the whole population and
in particular, he/she wanted from the beginning, to
catholicize, to convert to the Catholic faith to the
black ones that brought from their lands their own
expressions and cultures; developed and learned according
to their rules but completely different and demoniacal
and pagans according to the Catholic mythical cosmovisión.